Most of the watermills of the island are located along the stream of Mylopotamos. There is a total of 23 watermills, but only three of them are preserved in a good condition with their mechanism intact. They are all privately owned. The name of the village, Mylopotamos (in Greek Mill-River), probably comes from the existence of these mills in the area. The ravine of Mylopotamos is the most fertile area of the island receiving the most water. The mills flourished during the English domination of the island.
Paleochora – Agios Dimitrios
The Byzantine castle in the town of Agios Dimitrios was built in the 12th century by the Eudaimonogiannides of Monemvasia. It was a safe natural fortress built on the 216-meter high rock, in the Kakia Lagkada Canyon, 2 kilometers away from the northeastern shore. Because it was not visible from the sea, it protected the population from pirate raids. Its only access was from the southwestern side, through a six-meter high wall with battlements, which still partially stands today. On its northern and eastern side, the fortress is built on the cliff sides, with houses and churches. According to Gillian Ince, an archaeologist from the British Archaeological School who researched Paliochora, there were 23 churches and 70 houses within the fortress, most of which have collapsed.
Built in 1857 during the British domination, the lighthouse of Moudari is one of the biggest in Greece. It is located in cape Spathi on the northern tip of the island. It is 25 meters tall with a focal height of 110 meters. It started operating the same year it was built and was powered by oil. It had a 60 second flash impulse visible as far as 20 nautical miles. During War World II, the lighthouse remained inactive. It became active again in 1945, during the reconstruction of the entire lighthouse network of Greece.
The stone bridge of Katouni was built during the British domination in 1826. It is one of the largest built in Greece, with a length of 110 meters, a width of 6 meters and a height of 15 meters. The bridge is supported by 13 symmetric arches with 12 cylindrical openings. The bridge was constructed based on plans drawn up by the British High Commissioner, the engineer Macphail. The project was ambitious and was part of a larger public work project on the island: roads, bridges, schools, aqueducts, ports and lighthouses.
Castle of Kythera Town
After the destruction of Paliochora in 1537, the castle of the capital city became the administrative center of the island. All political, intellectual, religious and military administration of the island was centralized in the castle, which is located in the southern part of the island, on a 200 meter high steep ridge, two kilometers from the Kapsali bay. Covering about 15 acres, it was built during the 13th century by the Venetian Venier family but fortifications were probably built earlier, during the Byzantine era. In 1503, after the Second Ottoman-Venetian War, the castle was repaired by the Venetians, in their effort to secure their remaining holdings.